Ecological restoration is known as the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed.
Ecosystems are dynamic communities of plants, animals, and microorganisms interacting with their physical environment as a functional unit.
In many ecosystems, humans have converted natural communities to extractive use (such as agriculture or mining), altered local native populations of plants and animals, introduced invasive species, fouled waters, and degraded soil resources. Ecological restoration focuses on repairing the damage human activities have caused to natural ecosystems and seeks to return them to an earlier state. Reforestation is one of the most important means of ecological restoration.
Reforestation is the reestablishment of trees and understory plants at a site previously occupied by forest cover. Forests are an important part of the global carbon cycle because plants and trees absorb carbon dioxide through the mechanism of photosynthesis. So, forests function as terrestrial carbon sinks and remove this greenhouse gas from the air. Therefore, Planting billions of trees across the world is one of the biggest and cheapest ways of taking CO2 out of the atmosphere to tackle the climate crisis.